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/*
 * JavaInvoke.java --
 *
 *	This class implements the common routines used by the java::*
 *	commands to access the Java Reflection API.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and
 * redistribution of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL
 * WARRANTIES.
 *
 * RCS: @(#) $Id: JavaInvoke.java,v 1.25 2006/06/13 06:52:47 mdejong Exp $
 *
 */

package tcl.lang;

import tcl.lang.reflect.*;
import java.lang.reflect.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.beans.*;

/**
 * This class implements the common routines used by the java::*
 * commands to create Java objects, call Java methods and access fields
 * and properties. It also has auxiliary routines for converting between
 * TclObject's and Java Object's.
 */

class JavaInvoke {

// We need to use empty array Object[0] a lot. We keep a static copy
// and re-use it to avoid garbage collection.

static private Object EMPTY_ARGS[] = new Object[0];


/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * newInstance --
 *
 *	Call the specified constructor.
 *
 * Results:
 *	When successful, the object created by the constructor.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The constructor can cause arbitrary side effects.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
newInstance(
    Interp interp,              // Current interpreter.
    TclObject signature,	// Constructor signature.
    TclObject[] argv,		// Arguments.
    int startIdx,		// Index of the first argument in argv to
				// pass to the constructor.
    int count)			// Number of arguments to pass to the
				// constructor.
throws
    TclException		// Standard Tcl exception.
{
    // Some built-in types have wrapper classes that behave in
    // unexpected ways. For example, the Boolean constructor
    // is overloaded to accept either a boolean primitive or
    // a String value. The FuncSig module prefers method signatures
    // that accept a String, but the version that accepts a String
    // does not match Tcl's number parsing semantics. Fix this problem
    // by explicitly invoking the wrapper constructor that accepts
    // a primitive type so that the type conversion logic in this
    // module is used to pass a Tcl value to a Java primitive argument.

    if (count == 1) {
        final String sig = signature.toString();
        if (sig.equals("Boolean") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Boolean")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Boolean boolean");
        } else if (sig.equals("Integer") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Integer")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Integer int");
        } else if (sig.equals("Byte") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Byte")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Byte byte");
        } else if (sig.equals("Short") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Short")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Short short");
        } else if (sig.equals("Character") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Character")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Character char");
        } else if (sig.equals("Long") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Long")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Long long");
        } else if (sig.equals("Float") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Float")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Float float");
        } else if (sig.equals("Double") ||
                sig.equals("java.lang.Double")) {
            signature = TclString.newInstance("java.lang.Double double");
        }
    }

    FuncSig sig = FuncSig.get(interp, null, signature, argv, startIdx,
	    count, false);

    Object javaObj = call(interp, sig.pkgInvoker, signature, sig.func,
	    null, argv, startIdx, count);

    return ReflectObject.newInstance(interp, sig.targetCls, javaObj);
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * callMethod --
 *
 *	Call the specified instance or static method of the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *      When successful, this method returns the Java object that the
 *      Java method would have returned. If the Java method has a void
 *      return type then null is returned.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The method can cause arbitrary side effects.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
callMethod(
    Interp interp,              // Current interpreter.
    TclObject reflectObj,	// The object whose method to invoke.
    TclObject signature,	// Method signature.
    TclObject argv[],		// Arguments.
    int startIdx,		// Index of the first argument in argv[] to
				// pass to the method.
    int count,			// Number of arguments to pass to the
				// method.
    boolean convert)		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
throws
    TclException
{
    Object javaObj = ReflectObject.get(interp, reflectObj);
    Class  javaCl  = ReflectObject.getClass(interp, reflectObj);
    FuncSig sig = FuncSig.get(interp, javaCl, signature, argv,
                                               startIdx, count, false);
    Method method = (Method) sig.func;
    Class rtype = method.getReturnType();

    if (!PkgInvoker.isAccessible(rtype)) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "Return type \"" +
	        JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(rtype) +
	        "\" is not accessible");
    }

    Object result = call(interp, sig.pkgInvoker, signature, method, javaObj,
	    argv, startIdx, count);

    if (rtype == Void.TYPE) {
	return null;
    } else {
	return wrap(interp, rtype, result, convert);
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * callStaticMethod --
 *
 *	Call the specified static method of the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *      When successful, this method returns the Java object that the
 *      Java method would have returned. If the Java method has a void
 *      return type then null is returned.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The method can cause arbitrary side effects.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
callStaticMethod(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.	
    TclObject classObj,		// Class whose static method to invoke.
    TclObject signature,	// Method signature.
    TclObject argv[],		// Arguments.
    int startIdx,		// Index of the first argument in argv[] to
				// pass to the method.
    int count,			// Number of arguments to pass to the
				// method.
    boolean convert)		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
throws
    TclException
{
    Class cls = ClassRep.get(interp, classObj);
    FuncSig sig = FuncSig.get(interp, cls, signature, argv,
	    startIdx, count, true);

    Method method = (Method) sig.func;
    Class rtype = method.getReturnType();

    if (!PkgInvoker.isAccessible(rtype)) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "Return type \"" +
	        JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(rtype) +
	        "\" is not accessible");
    }

    Object result = call(interp, sig.pkgInvoker, signature, method, null,
	    argv, startIdx, count);

    if (rtype == Void.TYPE) {
	return null;
    } else {
	return wrap(interp, method.getReturnType(), result, convert);
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * call --
 *
 *	Call the constructor, instance method, or static method with
 *	the given parameters. Check the parameter types and perform
 *	TclObject to JavaObject conversion.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The object created by the constructor, or the return value
 *	of the method call.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The constructor/method call may have arbitrary side effects.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static Object
call(
    Interp interp,
    PkgInvoker invoker,		// The PkgInvoked used to invoke the
				// method or constructor.
    TclObject signature,	// For formatting error message.
    Object func,		// The Constructor or Method to call.
    Object obj,			// The object associated with an instace
				// method call. Should be null for
				// constructor calls and static method
				// calls.
    TclObject argv[],		// Argument list.
    int startIdx,		// Index of the first argument in argv[] to
				// pass to the method or constructor.
    int count)			// Number of arguments to pass to the
				// method or constructor.
throws
    TclException		// Standard Tcl exception.
{
    Class paramTypes[];
    Constructor cons = null;
    Method method = null;
    int i;
    boolean isConstructor = (func instanceof Constructor);

    if (isConstructor) {
	cons = (Constructor) func;
	paramTypes = cons.getParameterTypes();
    } else {
	method = (Method) func;
	paramTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
    }

    if (count != paramTypes.length) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "wrong # args for calling " +
		(isConstructor ? "constructor" : "method") +
		" \"" + signature + "\"");
    }

    Object args[];

    if (count == 0) {
	args = EMPTY_ARGS;
    } else {
	args = new Object[count];
	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
	    args[i] = convertTclObject(interp, paramTypes[i],
		    argv[i + startIdx]);
	}
    }

    try {
	final boolean debug = false;
	Object result;

	if (isConstructor) {
	    result = invoker.invokeConstructor(cons, args);
	}  else {
	    result = invoker.invokeMethod(method, obj, args);
	}

	if (debug) {
	    System.out.println("result object from invocation is \""
			       + result + "\"");
	}

	return result;
    } catch (InstantiationException e) {
        throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected abstract class: " +
                e.getMessage());
    } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
        throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected inaccessible ctor or method: " +
                e.getMessage());
    } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
        throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected IllegalArgumentException: " +
                e.getMessage());
    } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
	Throwable te = e.getTargetException();
	if (te instanceof TclException) {
	    interp.setResult(te.getMessage());
	    throw (TclException) te;
	} else {
	    throw new ReflectException(interp, te);
	}
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * getField --
 *
 *	Returns the value of a field in the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	When successful, returns an array: Object result[2]. result[0]
 *	is the value of the field; result[1] is the type of the field.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static final TclObject
getField(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    TclObject classOrObj,	// Class or object whose field to get.
    TclObject signature,	// Signature of the field.
    boolean convert)		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
throws
    TclException		// Standard Tcl exception.
{
    return getsetField(interp, classOrObj, signature, null, convert, true);
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * setField --
 *
 *	Sets the value of a field in the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	When successful, the field is set to the given value.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static final void
setField(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    TclObject classOrObj,	// Class or object whose field to get.
    TclObject signature,	// Signature of the field.
    TclObject value)		// New value for the field.
throws
    TclException		// Standard Tcl exception.
{
    getsetField(interp, classOrObj, signature, value, false, false);
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * getsetField --
 *
 *	Gets or sets the field in the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	When successful, the field is set to the given value if isget
 *	is false.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
getsetField(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    TclObject classOrObj,	// Class or object whose field to get.
    TclObject signature,	// Signature of the field.
    TclObject value,		// New value for the field.
    boolean convert,		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
    boolean isget)
throws
    TclException		// Standard Tcl exception.
{
    Class cls = null;
    Object obj = null;
    boolean isStatic = false;

    try {
	obj = ReflectObject.get(interp, classOrObj);
    } catch (TclException e) {
	try {
	    cls = ClassRep.get(interp, classOrObj);
	} catch (TclException e1) {
	    throw new TclException(interp, "unknown class or object \"" + 
		classOrObj  + "\"");
	}
	isStatic = true;

	if (!PkgInvoker.isAccessible(cls)) {
	    JavaInvoke.notAccessibleError(interp, cls);
	}
    }

    if (!isStatic) {
	if (obj == null) {
	    throw new TclException(interp,
		"can't access fields in a null object reference");
	}
	cls = ReflectObject.getClass(interp, classOrObj);
    }

    // Check for the special case where the field is named "class"
    // which has a special meaning and is enforced by the javac compiler.
    // If found, return the java.lang.Class object for the named class.

    if (isStatic && isget && signature.toString().equals("class")) {
	return wrap(interp, Class.class, cls, false);
    }

    FieldSig sig = FieldSig.get(interp, signature, cls);
    Field field = sig.field;
    if (isStatic && (!(Modifier.isStatic(field.getModifiers())))) {
	throw new TclException(interp,
		"can't access an instance field without an object");
    }
    Class ftype = field.getType();

    if (!PkgInvoker.isAccessible(field.getType())) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "Field type \"" +
	        JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(ftype) +
	        "\" is not accessible");
    }

    if (!isget && Modifier.isFinal(field.getModifiers())) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "can't set final field \"" +
	        signature + "\"");
    }

    try {
	if (isget) {
	    return wrap(interp, ftype,
		    sig.pkgInvoker.getField(field, obj), convert);
	} else {
	    Object javaValue = convertTclObject(interp, ftype,
		    value);
	    sig.pkgInvoker.setField(field, obj, javaValue);
	    return null;
	}
    } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected IllegalArgumentException: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected IllegalAccessException: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * getProperty --
 *
 *	Returns the value of a property in the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	When successful, returns a the value of the property inside
 *	a TclObject
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
getProperty(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    TclObject reflectObj,	// The object whose property to query.
    TclObject propName,		// The name of the property to query.
    boolean convert)		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
throws
    TclException		// A standard Tcl exception.
{
    Object javaObj = ReflectObject.get(interp, reflectObj);
    if (javaObj == null) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "can't get property from null object");
    }

    Class javaClass = ReflectObject.getClass(interp, reflectObj);
    PropertySig sig = PropertySig.get(interp, javaClass, propName);

    Method readMethod = sig.desc.getReadMethod();

    if (readMethod == null) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "can't get write-only property \"" +
		propName + "\"");
    }

    try {
	return wrap(interp, readMethod.getReturnType(),
		sig.pkgInvoker.invokeMethod(readMethod, javaObj,
		EMPTY_ARGS), convert);
    } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected inaccessible readMethod: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected IllegalArgumentException: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
	throw new ReflectException(interp, e);
    }

}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * setProperty --
 *
 *	Returns the value of a property in the given object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	When successful, the property will have the new value.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
setProperty(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    TclObject reflectObj,	// The object whose property to query.
    TclObject propName,		// The name of the property to query.
    TclObject value)		// Whether the value should be converted
				// into Tcl objects of the closest types.
throws
    TclException		// A standard Tcl exception.
{
    Object javaObj = ReflectObject.get(interp, reflectObj);
    if (javaObj == null) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "can't set property in null object");
    }

    Class  javaClass = ReflectObject.getClass(interp, reflectObj);
    PropertySig sig = PropertySig.get(interp,javaClass,propName);


    Method writeMethod = sig.desc.getWriteMethod();
    Class type = sig.desc.getPropertyType();

    if (writeMethod == null) {
	throw new TclException(interp, "can't set read-only property \"" +
		propName + "\"");
    }

    Object args[] = new Object[1];
    args[0] = convertTclObject(interp, type, value);

    try {
	sig.pkgInvoker.invokeMethod(writeMethod, javaObj, args);
    } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected inaccessible writeMethod: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
	throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected IllegalArgumentException: " +
	        e.getMessage());
    } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
	throw new ReflectException(interp, e);
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * getClassByName --
 *
 *	Returns Class object identified by the string name. We allow
 *	abbreviation of the java.lang.* class if there is no ambiguity:
 *	e.g., if there is no class whose fully qualified name is "String",
 *	then "String" means java.lang.String. Inner classes are supported
 *	both with fully qualified names and imported class names.
 *
 * Results:
 *	If successful, The Class object identified by the string name.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static Class
getClassByName(
    Interp interp,                      // Interp used by TclClassLoader
    String clsName)			// String name of the class.
throws
    TclException			// If the class cannot be found or loaded.
    
{
    Class result = null;
    int dimension;

    final boolean debug = false;
    if (debug) {
        System.out.println("JavaInvoke.getClassByName(\"" + clsName + "\")");
    }

    // If the string is of the form className[][]..., strip out the trailing
    // []s and record the dimension of the array.

    StringBuffer prefix_buf = new StringBuffer(64);
    StringBuffer suffix_buf = new StringBuffer(64);
    StringBuffer clsName_buf = new StringBuffer(clsName);

    String lname;

    int clsName_len;
    for (dimension = 0; true ; dimension++) {
        clsName_len = clsName_buf.length();

        if ((clsName_len > 2) &&
            (clsName_buf.charAt(clsName_len - 2) == '[') &&
            (clsName_buf.charAt(clsName_len - 1) == ']')) {

            clsName_buf.setLength(clsName_len - 2);
            prefix_buf.append('[');
        } else {
            break;
        }
    }

    boolean package_name_exception = false;

    if (true) {
        clsName = clsName_buf.toString(); // Use shortened form of name

        // Search for the char '.' in the name. If '.' is in
        // the name then we know it is not a builtin type.

	if (clsName.indexOf('.') == -1) {
	    if (dimension > 0) {
		boolean isPrimitive = true;

		if (clsName.equals("int")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('I');
		} else if (clsName.equals("boolean")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('Z');
		} else if (clsName.equals("long")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('J');
		} else if (clsName.equals("float")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('F');
		} else if (clsName.equals("double")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('D');
		} else if (clsName.equals("byte")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('B');
		} else if (clsName.equals("short")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('S');
		} else if (clsName.equals("char")) {
		    prefix_buf.append('C');
		} else {
		    isPrimitive = false;
		}

		if (isPrimitive) {
		    try {
		        return Class.forName(prefix_buf.toString());
		    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
		        throw new TclRuntimeError(
		            "unexpected ClassNotFoundException: " +
		            e.getMessage());
		    }
		}

		// Otherwise, not a primitive array type

		prefix_buf.append('L');
		suffix_buf.append(';');
	    } else {
		if (clsName.equals("int")) {
		    return Integer.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("boolean")) {
		    return Boolean.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("long")) {
		    return Long.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("float")) {
		    return Float.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("double")) {
		    return Double.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("byte")) {
		    return Byte.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("short")) {
		    return Short.TYPE;
		} else if (clsName.equals("char")) {
		    return Character.TYPE;
		}
	    }

	    // Use TclClassLoader defined on a per-interp basis.
	    TclClassLoader tclClassLoader = (TclClassLoader) interp.getClassLoader();

	    try {
		lname = prefix_buf + clsName + suffix_buf;

		if (debug) {
		    System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
		}

		result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
	    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
		result = null;
	    } catch (PackageNameException e) {
		// Should not be possible to catch a PackageNameException
		// here since the class name above should contain no '.' chars.
		throw new TclRuntimeError("unexpected PackageNameException :" +
		    e.getMessage());
	    }

	    if (result == null) {
		// If the class loader can not find the class then check with
		// the "import" feature to see if the given clsName maps to
		// a fully qualified class name.

		boolean inJavaLang = false;
		String fullyqualified = JavaImportCmd.getImport(interp, clsName);

		// If we do not find a fully qualified name in the import table
		// then try to fully qualify the class with the java.lang prefix 

		if (fullyqualified == null) {
		    inJavaLang = true;
		    fullyqualified = "java.lang." + clsName;
		}

		// If the class starts with "java." and it can't be
		// loaded with the system class loader, then a
		// PackageNameException is raised.

		try {
		    lname = prefix_buf + fullyqualified + suffix_buf;

		    if (debug) {
		        System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
		    }

		    result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
		} catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
		    result = null;
		} catch (PackageNameException e) {
		    // If loading a class from java.lang package fails
		    // and we fully qualified the class name with the
		    // java.lang prefix, then don't emit a special
		    // error message related to the package name.

		    if (inJavaLang) {
                        // No-op
		    } else {
		        package_name_exception = true;
		    }
		    result = null;
		}

	        if (debug) {
                    if (result == null) {
	                System.out.println("load failed");
                    } else {
	                System.out.println("load worked");
                    }
	        }
	    }
	} else {
	    // clsName contains a '.' character. It is either a fully
	    // qualified toplevel class name or an inner class name.
	    // Note that use of a '$' to indicate an inner class is
	    // supported only for backwards compatibility and
	    // works only with a fully qualified class name.

	    TclClassLoader tclClassLoader = (TclClassLoader) interp.getClassLoader();

	    if (dimension > 0) {
                prefix_buf.append("L");
                suffix_buf.append(";");
	    }

	    try {
		lname = prefix_buf + clsName + suffix_buf;

		if (debug) {
		    System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
		}

		result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
	    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
	        result = null;
	    } catch (PackageNameException e) {
	        package_name_exception = true;
	        result = null;
	    }

	    if (debug) {
                if (result == null) {
	            System.out.println("load failed");
                } else {
	            System.out.println("load worked");
                }
	    }

	    if ((result == null) && (clsName.indexOf('$') == -1)) {
	        // Toplevel class with fully qualified name not found.
	        // Search for an inner class with this name. This
	        // search is tricky because inner classes can be
	        // nested inside other inner classes. Find a containing
	        // class that exists, then search for an inner class
	        // relative to the containing class. Old style inner class
	        // names that contain a literal '$' character are not searched.

	        ArrayList parts = new ArrayList(5);
	        int si = 0;
	        int clsNameLength = clsName.length();
	        for (int i=0; i <= clsNameLength; i++) {
	            if ((i == clsNameLength) || (clsName.charAt(i) == '.')) {
	                parts.add( clsName.substring(si, i) );
	                si = i + 1;
	            }
	        }
	        if (debug) {
	            System.out.println("clsName parts is " + parts);
	        }

	        // Search for a contanining class, construct inner
	        // class name if a contanining class was found.

	        String toplevel = null;
	        String inner = null;
	        boolean load_inner = false;

	        for (int i = parts.size() - 1; i > 0; i--) {
	            StringBuffer sb;

	            sb = new StringBuffer(64);
	            for (int bi=0; bi < i; bi++) {
	                sb.append( parts.get(bi) );
	                sb.append( '.' );
	            }
	            if ((sb.length() > 0) && (sb.charAt(sb.length() - 1) == '.')) {
	                sb.setLength(sb.length() - 1);
	            }
	            toplevel = sb.toString();

	            sb = new StringBuffer(64);
	            for (int ai=i; ai < parts.size(); ai++) {
	                sb.append( parts.get(ai) );
	                sb.append( '$' );
	            }
	            if ((sb.length() > 0) && (sb.charAt(sb.length() - 1) == '$')) {
	                sb.setLength(sb.length() - 1);
	            }
	            inner = sb.toString();

	            if (debug) {
	                System.out.println("loop " + i + ":");
	                System.out.println("toplevel is " + toplevel);
	                System.out.println("inner is " + inner);
	            }

	            try {
	                lname = prefix_buf + toplevel + suffix_buf;

	                if (debug) {
	                    System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
	                }

	                result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
	            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
	                // Not an enclosing toplevel class, raise TclException
	                result = null;
	            } catch (PackageNameException e) {
	                package_name_exception = true;
	                result = null;
	            }

	            if (debug) {
	                if (result == null) {
	                    System.out.println("load failed");
	                } else {
	                    System.out.println("load worked");
	                }
	            }

	            if (result != null) {
	                // Containing class was loaded, break out of
	                // this loop and load the inner class by name.

	                load_inner = true;
	                break;
	            } else if ((toplevel.indexOf('.') == -1)) {
	                // The toplevel class was not loaded, it could
	                // be an imported class name. Check the import
	                // table for this class name. Don't bother
	                // loading an imported name since the class
	                // had to exist to be imported in the first place.

	                if (debug) {
	                    System.out.println("checking import table for \"" + toplevel + "\"");
	                }
	                String fullyqualified = JavaImportCmd.getImport(interp, toplevel);
	                if (debug) {
	                    if (fullyqualified == null) {
	                        System.out.println("was not imported");
	                    } else {
	                        System.out.println("was imported as \"" + fullyqualified + "\"");
	                    }
	                }

	                if (fullyqualified != null) {
	                    load_inner = true;
	                    toplevel = fullyqualified;
	                    break;
	                } else {
	                    // Not an imported toplevel class. Check to
	                    // see if the class is in the java.lang package.

	                    fullyqualified = "java.lang." + toplevel;

	                    try {
	                        lname = prefix_buf + fullyqualified + suffix_buf;

	                        if (debug) {
	                            System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
	                        }

	                        result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
	                    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
	                        result = null;
	                    } catch (PackageNameException e) {
	                        result = null;
	                    }

	                    if (debug) {
	                        if (result == null) {
	                            System.out.println("load failed");
	                        } else {
	                            System.out.println("load worked");
	                        }
	                    }

	                    if (result != null) {
	                        load_inner = true;
	                        toplevel = fullyqualified;
	                        break;
	                    }
	                }
	            }
	        }

	        if (load_inner) {
	            // If enclosing class exists, attempt to load inner class.

	            try {
	                lname = prefix_buf + toplevel + "$" + inner + suffix_buf;

	                if (debug) {
	                    System.out.println("attempting load of \"" + lname + "\"");
	                }

	                result = tclClassLoader.loadClass(lname);
	            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
	                // Not an inner class, raise TclException
	                result = null;
	            } catch (PackageNameException e) {
	                package_name_exception = true;
	                result = null;
	            }

	            if (debug) {
	                if (result == null) {
	                    System.out.println("load failed");
	                } else {
	                    System.out.println("load worked");
	                }
	            }
	        } // end if (load_inner)
	    }
	}
    } // end if (true) block

    if ((result == null) && package_name_exception) {
        if (debug) {
            System.out.println("throwing TclException because of PackageNameException");
        }

        throw new TclException(interp, 
            "cannot load new class into java or tcl package");
    }

    if (result == null) {
        if (debug) {
            System.out.println("throwing unknown class TclException");
        }

	throw new TclException(interp, "unknown class \"" + clsName_buf + "\"");
    }

    return result;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 *  convertJavaObject --
 *
 *	Converts the java.lang.Object into a Tcl object and return
 *	TclObject that holds the reult. Primitive data types
 *	are converted into primitive Tcl data types. Otherwise,
 *	a ReflectObject wrapper is created for the object so that it
 *	can be later accessed with the Reflection API.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The TclObject representation of the Java object.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static TclObject
convertJavaObject(
    Interp interp,	// Current interpreter.
    Class cls,		// The class of the Java Object
    Object javaObj)	// The java.lang.Object to convert to a TclObject.
throws TclException
{
    if (javaObj == null) {
	if (cls == String.class) {
	    return TclString.newInstance("");
	} else {
	    return ReflectObject.newInstance(interp, cls, javaObj);
	}

    } else if ((cls == Integer.TYPE) || (cls == Integer.class)) {
	return TclInteger.newInstance(((Integer) javaObj).intValue());

    } else if ((cls == Long.TYPE) || (cls == Long.class)) {
	// A long can not be represented as a TclInteger
	return TclString.newInstance(javaObj.toString());

    } else if ((cls == Short.TYPE) || (cls == Short.class)) {
	return TclInteger.newInstance(((Short) javaObj).intValue());

    } else if ((cls == Byte.TYPE) || (cls == Byte.class)) {
	return TclInteger.newInstance(((Byte) javaObj).intValue());

    } else if ((cls == Double.TYPE) || (cls == Double.class)) {
	return TclDouble.newInstance(((Double) javaObj).doubleValue());

    } else if ((cls == Float.TYPE) || (cls == Float.class)) {
	return TclDouble.newInstance(((Float) javaObj).doubleValue());

    } else if ((cls == Boolean.TYPE) || (cls == Boolean.class)) {
	return TclBoolean.newInstance(((Boolean) javaObj).booleanValue());

    } else if ((cls == Character.TYPE) || (cls == Character.class)) {
	return TclString.newInstance(((Character) javaObj).toString());

    } else if (cls == String.class) {
	return TclString.newInstance((String)javaObj);

    } else {
	return ReflectObject.newInstance(interp, cls, javaObj);
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * convertTclObject --
 *
 *	Converts a Tcl object to a Java Object of the required type.
 *
 * Results:
 *	An Object of the required type.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static final Object
convertTclObject(
    Interp interp,		// Current interpreter.
    Class type,			// Convert to this type.
    TclObject tclObj)		// From this Tcl object.
throws
    TclException		// If conversion fails.
{
    Object javaObj = null;
    Class javaClass = null;
    boolean isReflectObj = false;

    try {
	javaObj = ReflectObject.get(interp, tclObj);
	javaClass = ReflectObject.getClass(interp, tclObj);
	isReflectObj = true;
    } catch (TclException e) {
	interp.resetResult();
    }


    if (! isReflectObj) {
	// tclObj a Tcl "primitive" value. We try convert it to the 
	// corresponding primitive value in Java.
	//
	// To optimize performance, the following "if" statements are
	// arranged according to (my guesstimation of) the frequency
	// that a certain type is used.

	if (type == String.class) {
	    return tclObj.toString();

	} else if (type == Object.class) {
	    return tclObj.toString();

	} else if ((type == Integer.TYPE) || (type == Integer.class)) {
	    // If an object is already a TclInteger type, then pass
	    // the existing value directly. Otherwise, parse the
	    // number as a Java int and see if it can be represented
	    // as a Java int. This logic will raise an exception
	    // when a number can't be represented as a 32bit signed int.
	    // Tcl's weird number parsing rules will wrap the integer
	    // around and calling code can't detect an overflow.

	    int jint = parseJavaInt(interp, tclObj);
	    return new Integer(jint);

	} else if ((type == Boolean.TYPE) || (type == Boolean.class)) {
	    return new Boolean(TclBoolean.get(interp, tclObj));

	} else if ((type == Long.TYPE) || (type == Long.class)) {
	    // If an object is already a TclInteger type, then pass
	    // the existing value directly. Otherwise, parse the
	    // number as a Java long. Raise a TclException if the
	    // number is not an integer or is outside the long bounds.

	    long jlong = parseJavaLong(interp, tclObj);
	    return new Long(jlong);

	} else if ((type == Float.TYPE) || (type == Float.class)) {
	    // Tcl stores floating point numbers as doubles,
	    // so we just need to check to see if the value
	    // is outside the float bounds. Invoking a Java
	    // method should not automatically lose precision.

	    double jdouble = TclDouble.get(interp, tclObj);
	    float jfloat = (float) jdouble;

	    if ((jdouble == Double.NaN) ||
	           (jdouble == Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY) ||
	           (jdouble == Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY)) {
	        // No-op
	    } else if ((jdouble != 0.0) &&
	          ((Math.abs(jdouble) > (double) Float.MAX_VALUE) ||
	           (Math.abs(jdouble) < (double) Float.MIN_VALUE))) {
	        throw new TclException(interp,
	            "double value too large to represent in a float");
	    }
	    return new Float(jfloat);

	} else if ((type == Double.TYPE) || (type == Double.class)) {
	    return new Double(TclDouble.get(interp, tclObj));

	} else if ((type == Byte.TYPE) || (type == Byte.class)) {
	    // Parse a Java int, then check valid byte range.

	    int jint = parseJavaInt(interp, tclObj);
	    if ((jint < Byte.MIN_VALUE) || (jint > Byte.MAX_VALUE)) {
		throw new TclException(interp,
		   "integer value too large to represent in a byte");
	    }
	    return new Byte((byte) jint);

	} else if ((type == Short.TYPE) || (type == Short.class)) {
	    // Parse a Java int, then check valid byte range.

	    int jint = parseJavaInt(interp, tclObj);
	    if ((jint < Short.MIN_VALUE) || (jint > Short.MAX_VALUE)) {
		throw new TclException(interp,
		    "integer value too large to represent in a short");
	    }
	    return new Short((short) jint);

	} else if ((type == Character.TYPE) || (type == Character.class)) {
	    String str = tclObj.toString();
	    if (str.length() != 1) {
	        throw new TclException(interp, "expected character but got \""
		    + tclObj + "\"");
	    }
	    return new Character(str.charAt(0));

	} else if (type == TclObject.class) {
	    // Pass a non ReflectObject TclObject directly to a Java method.
	    return tclObj;
	} else {
	    throw new TclException(interp, "\"" + tclObj +
		    "\" is not an object handle of class \"" +
                     JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(type) +
		    "\"");
	}
    } else {
	// The TclObject is a ReflectObject that contains javaObj. We
	// check to see if javaObj can be converted to the required
	// type. If javaObj is a wrapper for a primitive type then
	// we check to see if the object is an instanceof the type.

	if (isAssignable(type, javaClass)) {
	    return javaObj;
	}

	if (type.isPrimitive()) {
	    if (type == Boolean.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Boolean) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Character.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Character) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Byte.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Byte) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Short.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Short) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Integer.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Integer) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Long.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Long) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Float.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Float) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Double.TYPE) {
	        if (javaObj instanceof Double) {
	            return javaObj;
	        }
	    }
	    else if (type == Void.TYPE) {
	        // void is not a valid type for conversions
	    }
	}

	// Pass TclObject that contains the ReflectObject directly.
	if (type == TclObject.class) {
	    return tclObj;
	}

	throw new TclException(interp, "expected object of type " +
                JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(type) +
		" but got \"" + tclObj + "\" (" +
                ((javaClass == null) ? "null" :
                JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(
        	    javaClass )) +
                ")");
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * wrap --
 *
 *	Wraps a Java Object into a TclObject according to whether the
 *	convert flag is set.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The TclObject that wraps the Java Object.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

private static final TclObject
wrap(
    Interp interp,	// Current interpreter.
    Class cls,		// The class of the Java Object
    Object javaObj,	// The Java Object to wrap.
    boolean convert)	// Whether the value should be converted
			// into Tcl objects of the closest types. 
throws TclException
{
    if (convert) {
	return convertJavaObject(interp, cls, javaObj);
    } else {
	return ReflectObject.newInstance(interp, cls, javaObj);
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * isAssignable --
 *
 *	Return true if the argument object can be assigned to
 *	convert flag is set.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The TclObject that wraps the Java Object.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static final boolean
isAssignable(
    Class  to_cls,	// The class we want to assign to
    Class  from_cls)    // The class we want to assign from (can be null)
{
    // A primitive type can not be assigned the null value, but it
    // can be assigned to any type derived from Object.

    if (from_cls == null) {
        if (to_cls.isPrimitive()) {
            return false;
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    } else {
        if ((to_cls == from_cls) || to_cls.isAssignableFrom(from_cls)) {
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * notAccessibleError --
 *
 *	Raise a specific TclException when a class that is not accessible
 *	is found.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
notAccessibleError(Interp interp, Class cls)
    throws TclException
{
    throw new TclException(interp,
        "Class \"" +
        JavaInfoCmd.getNameFromClass(cls) +
        "\" is not accessible");
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * isInnerClass --
 *
 *	Return true is a class is either an inner class or an inner interface.
 *	This is true only for classes defined inside other classes.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static boolean
isInnerClass(Class cls)
    throws TclException
{
    String cname = cls.getName();
    if (cname.indexOf('$') == -1) {
        return false;
    } else {
        return true;
    }
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * parseJavaInt --
 *
 *	Parse a Java int type from a TclObject. Unlike the rest of Tcl,
 *	this method will raise an error when an integer value is not
 *	in the range Integer.MIN_VALUE to Integer.MAX_VALUE. This is
 *	the range of a 32bit signed number as defined by Java. Tcl parses
 *	integers as 32bit unsigned numbers and wraps values outside the
 *	valid range. This method will catch the case of an integer outside
 *	of the valid range and raise a TclException so that a bogus value
 *	is not passed to Java.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns an int value or raises a TclException to indicate that
 *	the number can't be parsed as a Java int.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static int
parseJavaInt(
    Interp interp,
    TclObject obj)
        throws TclException
{
    // No point in reparsing a "pure" integer.

    if (obj.hasNoStringRep() && obj.isIntType()) {
        return TclInteger.get(interp, obj);
    }

    String srep = obj.toString();
    String s = srep;
    int len = s.length();
    char c;
    int startInd, endInd;
    boolean isNegative = false;

    // Trim whitespace off front of string

    int i = 0;
    while (i < len && (((c = s.charAt(i)) == ' ') ||
            Character.isWhitespace(c))) {
        i++;
    }
    if (i >= len) {
        throw new TclException(interp, "expected integer but got \"" + s + "\"");
    }
    startInd = i;

    // Trim whitespace off end of string

    endInd = len - 1;
    while (endInd > startInd && (((c = s.charAt(endInd)) == ' ') ||
            Character.isWhitespace(c))) {
        endInd--;
    }

    // Check for optional '-' sign, needed for hex and octal parse.

    c = s.charAt(i);
    if (c == '-') {
        isNegative = true;
        i++;
    }
    if (i >= (endInd + 1)) {
        throw new TclException(interp, "expected integer but got \"" + s + "\"");
    }

    // Check for hex or octal string prefix characters

    int radix = Character.MIN_RADIX - 1; // An invalid value

    c = s.charAt(i);
    if (c == '0' && len > 1) {
        // Either hex or octal
        i++;
        c = s.charAt(i);

        if (len > 2 && (c == 'x' || c == 'X')) {
            // Parse as hex
            radix = 16;
            i++;
        } else {
            // Parse as octal
            radix = 8;
        }

        // Create string that contains a leading negative sign followed
        // by the radix letters, leaving out the radix prefix.
        // For example, "-0xFF" is parsed as "-FF".

        if (isNegative) {
            s = "-" + s.substring(i, endInd + 1);
        } else {
            s = s.substring(i, endInd + 1);
        }
    } else {
        // Parse as decimal integer

        if ((startInd > 0) || (endInd < (len - 1))) {
            s = s.substring(startInd, endInd + 1);
        }

        radix = 10;
    }

    if (s.length() == 0) {
        throw new TclException(interp,
            "expected integer but got \"" + srep + "\"");
    }

    int ival;
    try {
        ival = Integer.parseInt(s, radix);
    } catch (NumberFormatException nfe) {
        // If one of the letters is not a valid radix character, then
        // the number is not a valid. Otherwise, the number must be
        // an integer value that is outside the valid range.

        for (i=0; i < s.length(); i++) {
            c = s.charAt(i);
            if (i == 0 && c == '-') {
                continue; // Skip minus sign
            }
            if (Character.digit(c, radix) == -1) {
                throw new TclException(interp,
                    "expected integer but got \"" + srep + "\"");
            }
        }

        throw new TclException(interp, "integer value too large to represent in a int");
    }

    return ival;
}

/*
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * parseJavaLong --
 *
 *	Parse a Java long type from a TclObject. Tcl may not support
 *	64 bit integers (Jacl does not), so this method needs to be used
 *	to determine if a string can be parsed into a long and if the
 *	result is in the range Long.MIN_VALUE to Long.MAX_VALUE.
 *	This method will catch the case of an long outside of
 *	the valid range and raise a TclException so that a bogus value
 *	is not passed to Java.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns a long value or raises a TclException to indicate that
 *	the number can't be parsed as a Java long.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static long
parseJavaLong(
    Interp interp,
    TclObject obj)
        throws TclException
{
    // No point in reparsing a "pure" integer.

    if (obj.hasNoStringRep() && obj.isIntType()) {
        return (long) TclInteger.get(interp, obj);
    }

    String srep = obj.toString();
    String s = srep;
    int len = s.length();
    char c;
    int startInd, endInd;
    boolean isNegative = false;

    // Trim whitespace off front of string

    int i = 0;
    while (i < len && (((c = s.charAt(i)) == ' ') ||
            Character.isWhitespace(c))) {
        i++;
    }
    if (i >= len) {
        throw new TclException(interp, "expected integer but got \"" + s + "\"");
    }
    startInd = i;

    // Trim whitespace off end of string

    endInd = len - 1;
    while (endInd > startInd && (((c = s.charAt(endInd)) == ' ') ||
            Character.isWhitespace(c))) {
        endInd--;
    }

    // Check for optional '-' sign, needed for hex and octal parse.

    c = s.charAt(i);
    if (c == '-') {
        isNegative = true;
        i++;
    }
    if (i >= (endInd + 1)) {
        throw new TclException(interp, "expected integer but got \"" + s + "\"");
    }

    // Check for hex or octal string prefix characters

    int radix = Character.MIN_RADIX - 1; // An invalid value

    c = s.charAt(i);
    if (c == '0' && len > 1) {
        // Either hex or octal
        i++;
        c = s.charAt(i);

        if (len > 2 && (c == 'x' || c == 'X')) {
            // Parse as hex
            radix = 16;
            i++;
        } else {
            // Parse as octal
            radix = 8;
        }

        // Create string that contains a leading negative sign followed
        // by the radix letters, leaving out the radix prefix.
        // For example, "-0xFF" is parsed as "-FF".

        if (isNegative) {
            s = "-" + s.substring(i, endInd + 1);
        } else {
            s = s.substring(i, endInd + 1);
        }
    } else {
        // Parse as decimal integer

        if ((startInd > 0) || (endInd < (len - 1))) {
            s = s.substring(startInd, endInd + 1);
        }

        radix = 10;
    }

    if (s.length() == 0) {
        throw new TclException(interp,
            "expected integer but got \"" + srep + "\"");
    }

    long lval;
    try {
        lval = Long.parseLong(s, radix);
    } catch (NumberFormatException nfe) {
        // If one of the letters is not a valid radix character, then
        // the number is not a valid. Otherwise, the number must be
        // an integer value that is outside the valid range.

        for (i=0; i < s.length(); i++) {
            c = s.charAt(i);
            if (i == 0 && c == '-') {
                continue; // Skip minus sign
            }
            if (Character.digit(c, radix) == -1) {
                throw new TclException(interp,
                    "expected integer but got \"" + srep + "\"");
            }
        }

        throw new TclException(interp, "integer value too large to represent in a long");
    }

    return lval;
}

} // end JavaInvoke